Rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, is a form of inflammatory arthritis and an autoimmune disease. For reasons no one fully understands, in rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system — which is designed to protect our health by attacking foreign cells such as viruses and bacteria — instead attacks the body’s own tissues, specifically the synovium, a thin membrane that lines the joints. As a result of the attack, fluid builds up in the joints, causing pain in the joints and inflammation that’s systemic — meaning it can occur throughout the body.
Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that mostly affects cartilage. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Healthy cartilage allows bones to glide over each other. It also helps absorb shock of movement. In osteoarthritis, the top layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. This allows bones under the cartilage to rub together. The rubbing causes pain, swelling, and loss of motion of the joint. Over time, the joint may lose its normal shape. Also, bone spurs may grow on the edges of the joint.
Arthritis is a complex family of musculoskeletal disorders consisting of more than 100 different diseases or conditions that destroy joints, bones, muscles, cartilage and other connective tissues, hampering or halting physical movement. Juvenile arthritis (JA) is an umbrella term used to describe the many autoimmune and inflammatory conditions that can develop in children ages 16 and younger.
It affects mostly males, as it is an X chromosome linked condition. Hemophilia affects 1 in 5,000 male births in the U.S. and approximately 400 babies are born with hemophilia each year. 400,000 people worldwide are living with hemophilia and about 20,000 are living with it in the United States alone. All races and economic groups are affected equally. People with hemophilia who have access to factor replacement therapy have a normal life expectancy.
Types of Hemophilia
Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) means it takes more time and effort to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach. Difficulty swallowing may also be associated with pain. In some cases, you may not be able to swallow at all. Occasional difficulty swallowing usually isn't cause for concern, and may simply occur when you eat too fast or don't chew your food well enough. But persistent difficulty swallowing may indicate a serious medical condition requiring treatment.
Bacterial endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (endocardium) and particularly the heart valves, due to infection. Infection may also occur at the site of a septal defect (birth defect in which there is a hole between the left and right sides of the heart), on the chordae tendineae (small tendons attached to the heart valves), or in the endocardium itself. Endocarditis may occur alone or as a complication of another disease. The infection can be caused by any number of microorganisms. It is classified as acute or subacute.